CAS No. [9004-35-7]
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Art. No. 4458.1
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Carbohydrates or Saccharides make up 50 % of the dry biomass of the earth and are therefore the most frequent class of biomolecules. Besides at least two hydroxy groups, they also have an aldehyde or a ketone group and can be subdivided according to the number of monomeric components in mono-, di-, oligo and polysaccharides.
Whereas mono-, di- and oligosaccharides are soluble in water, taste sweet and are therefore called as sugar, polysaccharides are hardly, or not at all, soluble in water and have a neutral taste.
Carbohydrates, together with fats and proteins make up a large percentage of nutrition. In addition to their central role as an energy source, they are also an important structural component especially in plants (e.g. Cellulose). Ribose, a monosaccaride with five carbons (C5H10O5) is an essential element of coenzymes (such as ATP, FAD and NAD) and a structural component of RNA. Desoxyribose (a ribose derivative) is a structural component of DNA.
Oligo- and polysaccharides
Oligosaccharides consist of three to nine monosaccharide units.
Polysaccharides are macromolecular substances that consist of ≥10 monosaccharide units. A distinction is made between homoglycans, which are made up of only one type of monosaccharides (e.g. starch) and heteroglycans, which consist of at least two different monomeric components (e.g. xanthan).